RED MARROW: bone marrow found at the end of the long bones, also manufactures red and white blood cells
OSTEOCYTES: They are bone cells that produce a hard, calcium rich extracellular matrix, and are embedded in a matrix of collagen and minerals and form the skeleton of an organism
SKELETON: the hard structure (bones and cartilages) that provides a framework for the body, as well as attachment sites for muscle. Over 200 bones.
AXIAL SKELETON: pertaining to the central part of the body, the head and trunk
APPENDICULAR SYSTEM: composed of 126 bones in the human body. The word appendicular is the adjective of the noun appendage, which itself means a part that is joined to something larger. Functionally it is involved in locomotion (Lower limbs) of the axial skeleton and manipulation of objects in the environment (Upper limbs).
JOINTS: is the location at which two or more bones make contact. They are constructed to allow movement and provide mechanical support, and are classified structurally and functionally.
Ligaments: fibrous tissue that connects bone to bone, to provide stability to joints
Tendon: the strong connective tissue cords that attach skeletal muscles to bones
Cartilage: strong connective tissue that supports the body and is softer and more flexible than bone
Osteoarthritis: Inflammation of the bone and joint
rheumatoid arthritis: A chronic systemic disease characterized by inflammation of the joints, stiffness, pain, and swelling that results in crippling deformities
Osteoporosis: a condition in which the body’s bones become weak and break easily
cardiac muscle: muscle tissue found only in the heart
smooth muscle: involuntary muscle: found in internal organs, muscle that forms the walls of the intestine, stomach, blood vessels, and other internal organs. has individual nucleus cells and no strations
skeletal muscle: Vouluntary, striated muscle that moves bones, works in pairs and is attatched to bones by tendons
Flexor: a muscle that bends a part of the body, such as an arm or a leg
Extensor: A muscle that causes extension.
Kidney: organ that removes urea, excess water, and other waste products from the blood and passes them to the ureter
Nephron: blood-filtering unit in the renal cortex of the kidney
Glomerulus: little ball-shaped cluster of capillaries located at the top of each nephron
Bowman’s capsule :cup-shaped strucutre of the nephron of a kidney which encloses the glomerulus and which filtration takes place.
proximal convoluted tubule: first section of the renal tubule that the blood flows through; reabsorption of water, ions, and all organic nutrients
loop of Henle: section of the nephron tubule that conserves water and minimizes the volume of urine
distal convoluted tubule: The portion of the nephron between the loop of Henle and the collecting duct system.
Urine: a fluid produced by the kidneys that contains water, urea and other waste materials
Ureter: either of a pair of thick-walled tubes that carry urine from the kidney to the urinary bladder
urinary bladder: a membranous sac for temporary retention of urine
urethra Duct: through which urine is discharged in most mammals and which serves as the male genital duct
sweat glands: glands of the skin that secrete small amounts of water to the skins surface
Liver: Large organ just above the stomach that produces bile
gamete sex cell: a haploid reproductive cell that unites with another haploid reproductive cell to form a zygote
Sperm: the male reproductive cell
Egg: animal reproductive body consisting of an ovum or embryo together with nutritive and protective envelopes
Testosterone: a potent androgenic male sex hormone produced chiefly by the testes
van deferens: During ejaculation carries the sperm from the testes to the urethra.
Ovaries: In animals, the female gonad, which produces egg cells.
Oocyte: Immature egg cell
Ovum: the female reproductive cell, female sex cell
Zygote: the fertilized egg; it enters a 2-week period of rapid cell division and develops into an embryo
Monoploid: of a cell or organism having a single set of chromosomes
Diploid: a cell that contains both sets of homologous chromosomes
Ovulation: process in which an egg is released from the ovary
fallopian tubes: tubes which carry eggs from the ovaries to the uterus and which provides the place where fertilization occurs
Uterus: organ of the female reproductive system in which a fertilized egg can develop
Endometrium: the mucous membrane that lines the inner wall of the uterus
Menstruation: the shedding of the uterine lining
Penis: the male organ that transfers sperm to a female and that carries urine out of the body.
Scrotum: external sac that contains the testes
Testes: organ that produces sperm
Placenta: a membrane that becomes the link between the developing embryo or fetus and the mother
Fetus: the developing human organism from 9 weeks after conception to birth
umbilical cord: membranous duct connecting the fetus with the placenta
Cornea: the clear tissue that covers the front of the eye
Iris: muscular diaphragm that controls the size of the pupil
Pupil: the adjustable opening in the center of the eye through which light enters
Retina: the light-sensitive inner surface of the eye, containing the receptor rods and cones plus layers of neurons that begin the processing of visual information
rod cells: work best in dim light and enable you to see black, white, and shades of gray
cone cells: work best in bright light and enable you to see colors
optic nerve: the nerve that carries neural impulses from the eye to the brain
outer ear: the part of the ear visible externally
tympanic membrane; the membrane in the ear that vibrates to sound
middle ear: the chamber between the eardrum and cochlea containing three tiny bones (hammer, anvil, and stirrup) that concentrate the vibrations of the eardrum on the cochlea’s oval window
Malleus: the ossicle attached to the eardrum, The first bone in the series of bones or ossicles of the middle ear. It is also called the hammer.
Incus: the ossicle between the malleus and the stapes, one of the three bones of the middle ear shaped like anvil
Stapes: The final bone in the series of small bones or ossicles of the middle ear. It is also called the stirrup
eustachian tube: A narrow tube between the middle ear and the throat that serves to equalize pressure on both sides of the eardrum
inner ear: the innermost part of the ear, containing the cochlea, semicircular canals, and vestibular sacs
cochlea: a coiled, bony, fluid-filled tube in the inner ear through which sound waves trigger nerve impulses
Mechanical digestion: Part of digestion that uses movement and muscles to break down food
Chemical digestion: the digestion process in which enzymes are used to break foods into their smaller chemical buiding blocks
Hydrolysis: A chemical process that lyses, or splits, molecules by the addition of water, an essential process in digestion.
Enzymes: molecules, usually proteins or nucleic acids, that act as catalysts in biochemical reactions
Anus: A muscular opening at the end of the rectum through which waste material is eliminated from the body
Alimentary canal : Also known as the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of the digestive tract, the alimentary canal is the long muscular “tube” that includes the mouth esophagus, somatch, small intestines’, and large intestine.
Accessory organs : In the GI tract, organs that play a role in digestion but not directly part of the alimentary canal. These include the liver, the gallbladder, the pancreas, and the salivary glands.
Surface area : The ability to transport oxygen, food, and waste across cell membrane depends on, the amount of exposed surface of a substance
Salivary glands : three pairs of exocrine glands in the mouth that secrete saliva; the parotid, submandibular (submaxillary), and sublingual glands
Amylase: enzyme in saliva that breaks the chemical bonds in starches
Pharynx: muscular tube at the end of the gastrovascular cavity, or throat, that connects the mouth with the rest of the digestive tract and serves as a passageway for air and food
Esophagus: muscular tube that moves food from the pharynx to the stomach
Epiglottis: The flap of tissue that seals off the windpipe and prevents food from entering.
Stomach: large muscular sac (organ) that continues the mechanical and chemical digestion of food
Peristalsis: involuntary waves of muscle contraction that keep food moving along in one direction through the digestive system
Gastric juice: A digestive liquid added to food in the stomach to chemically break down protein.
Protease: Enzyme that breaks down proteins
Chyme: a semiliquid mass of partially digested food that passes from the stomach into the small intestine
Small intestine: digestive organ in which most chemical digestion takes place
Pyloric: sphincter circular muscle that controls the movement of chyme from the stomach to the small intestines
Liver: large organ just above the stomach that produces bile and functions in metabolism of protein and carbohydrate and fat; synthesizes substances involved in the clotting of the blood
Bile: a mixture of salts and phospholipids that aids in the breakdown of fat,, a digestive juice secreted by the liver and stored in the gallbladder
Gallbladder: a muscular sac attached to the liver that secretes bile and stores it until needed for digestion
Pancreas: located partially behind the stomach in the abdomen, and it functions as both an endocrine and exocrine gland. It produces digestive enzymes as well as insulin and glucagon
Villi: Small fingerlike projections on the walls of the small intestines that increase surface area
Large intestine colon; organ that removes water from the undigested materials that pass through it
Rectum: The last part of the digestive tract, through which stools are eliminated
Egestion: Removal of undigested waste
Atrium: upper chamber of the heart that receives and holds blood that is about to enter the ventricle
Ventricle: a chamber of the heart that receives blood from an atrium and pumps it to the arteries
Atrioventricular: valve either of two heart valves through which blood flows from the atria to the ventricles
Pulmonary artery: carries deoxygenated blood from the right ventricle to the lungs
Deoxygenated blood: blood that contains little oxygen (blue)
Oxygenated blood: blood that carries an abundant amount of oxygen
Pulmonary vein: carries oxygenated blood from the lungs to the heart
Systole: the contraction of the chambers of the heart (especially the ventricles) to drive blood into the aorta and pulmonary artery
Diastole: relaxation period, the widening of the chambers of the heart between two contractions when the chambers fill with blood
Pulmonary circulation: circulation of blood between the heart and the lungs
Systematic circulation: flow of blood from the heart through the body back to the heart
Coronary circulation: the flow of blood to and from the tissues of the heart
Blood: The thick red fluid that flows through the body’s blood vessels and transports important substances throughout the body.
Plasma: liquid portion of blood made up of water, dissolved salts, proteins, and other substances
Hemoglobin: iron-containing protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen for delivery to cells
White blood cells: neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, lymphocytes and monocytes, cells that help the body fight diseases and infections
Platelets: cell fragments that play an important part in forming blood clots
Lymph capillaries : Tiniest lymphatic vessels, Drains away fluid so that it does not accumulate in the tissues of our body.
Lymph nodes: bean-shaped organs varying in size found throughout the body; filter microorganisms and foreign materials from lymphocytes
Arteries: carry blood from the heart to all parts of the body
Veins: blood vessels that carry blood back to the heart
Capillaries: tiny, thin-walled blood vessels that allow the exchange of gases and nutrients between the blood and the cells of the body
Lymph: the clear fluid that bathes each cell and transfers needed substances and wastes back and forth between the blood and the cells
Pharynx throat; passageway for food to the esophagus and air to the larynx
Larynx voice box; passageway for air moving from pharynx to trachea; contains vocal cords
Bronchi: The passages that branch from the trachea and direct air into the lungs
Bronchioles: small subdivisions of the bronchi that are dead ends with tiny air sacks called alveoli at the end
Alveoli: tiny sacs of lung tissue specialized for the movement of gases between air and blood
Diaphragm: Large, flat muscle at the bottom of the chest cavity that helps with breathing
Aerobic respiration: Respiration that requires oxygen, sequentially releasing energy and storing it in ATP
Anaerobic respiration :Respiration in the absence of oxygen. This produces lactic acid.
Lactic acid :when a muscle continues to burn sugar but doesn’t have enough oxygen to do it properly and becomes sore
Neuron: nerve cell that is specialized to conduct nerve impulses
Sodium: maintains cell fluids; helps nerves communicate, Na
Potassium: helps build protein; maintains fluids; helps nerves communicate; helps muscles contract,
Impulse: the electrical discharge that travels along a nerve fiber
Dendrite: extension of the cell body of a neuron that carries impulses from the environment or from other neurons toward the cell body
Cell: body largest part of a typical neuron; contains the nucleus and much of the cytoplasm
Axon: the extension of a neuron, ending in branching terminal fibers, through which messages pass to other neurons or to muscles or glands.
Axon terminal :The endpoint of a neuron where neurotransmitters are stored.
Neurotransmitter: chemical used by a neuron to transmit an impulse across a synapse to another cell
Synapse: location at which a neuron can transfer an impulse to another cell
Sensory neuron: picks up stimuli from the internal or external environment and converts each stimulus into a nerve impulse
Interneuron: a nerve cell that relays messages between nerve cells, especially in the brain and spinal cord
Motor: neuron nerve cell that carries messages away from the central nervous system towards the muscles and glands; efferent neuron
Nerve: any bundle of nerve fibers running to various organs and tissues of the body
CNS: Central Nervous System, the portion of the vertebrate nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord
PNS: Peripheral Nervous System, the sensory and motor neurons that connect the CNS to the rest of the body
Somatic: a division of the nervous system that controls voluntary muscle movements
Autonomic: This nervous system provides involuntary control over smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands.
Reflex arc: Sensory receptor, sensory neuron, motor neuron, and effector that are involved in a quick response to a stimulus.
Spinal cord: a major part of the central nervous system which conducts sensory and motor nerve impulses to and from the brain
Brain: The part of the central nervous system that is located in the skull and controls most functions in the body
Cerebrum: anterior portion of the brain consisting of two hemispheres, large part of the brain that controls the senses and thinking
Cerebellum: the “little brain” attached to the rear of the brainstem; it helps coordinate voluntary movement and balance
Brain stem: the part of the brain continuous with the spinal cord and comprising the medulla oblongata and pons and midbrain and parts of the hypothalamus
Medulla :part of the brain nearest the spinal cord which controls breathing, heart rate and blood pressure
Homeostasis: process by which organisms maintain a relatively stable internal environment
Hormones: chemical messengers, mostly those manufactured by the endocrine glands that are produced in one tissue and affect another
Pituitary gland: the endocrine system’s most influential gland. Under the influence of the hypothalamus, the pituitary regulates growth and controls other endocrine glands
Thyroid gland: Two lobes joined by a central mass in the throat, inferior to the larynx, produces two major hormones., produces hormones that regulate metabolism, body heat, and bone growth
Parathyroid gland :behind the thyroid gland, acts to maintain homeostasis of calcium levels in blood
Adrenal gland :On the kidneys, fight or flight hormone, regulates water balance, blood pressure, and joint articulation, hormones: adrenaline, steroids (cortisone)
Isles: of Langerhans controls storage of sugar in the liver and blood level of sugar, insulin and glucagan, in the pancreas
Testes: In the scrotum, testosterone, the male gonads, which produce sperm and secrete male sex hormones.
Ovaries :female gonads, estrogen and progesterone, pelvic region, female secondary sex characteristics, menstrual cycle.