Absorption: the process by which drug molecules move from their site of administration to the blood

Affinity: the ability of some tissues to attract, accumulate and store drugs in high concentrations relative to other tissues

Blood-brain barrier: Blood vessels (capillaries) that selectively let certain substances enter the brain tissue and keep other substances out

Diffusion: process by which molecules tend to move from an area where they are more concentrated to an area where they are less concentrated

Distribution: the transport of drugs throughout the body after they are absorbed

Drug-protein complexes: formed when a drugh that binds reversibly to a plasma protein, particularly albumin, that makes the drug unavailable for distribution to its site of action

Enterohepatic recirculation: recycling of drugs and other substances by the circulation of bile through the intestine and liver

Enzyme induction: process by whick a drug increases the activity of the hepatic microsomal enzymes

Excretion: the process of removing substances from the body

First-pass effect: mechanism whereby drugs are absorbed enter into the hepatic portal circulation and are inactivated by the liver before they reach the general circulation

Fetal-placental barrier: special anatomic barrier that inhibits many chemicals and drugs from entering the fetus

Hepatic microsomal enzyme system: as it relates to phamacotherapy, liver enzymes that metabolize drugs as well as nutrients and other endogenous substances, sometimes called the P-450 System

Isozymes: multiple similar forms of an enzyme that perform slightly different metabolic functions

Loading dose: relatively large dose of a drug given at the beginning of treatment to rapidly obtain a therapeutic response

Maintenance doses: amount of drug that keeps the plasma drug concentration in the therapeutic range

Metabolism: the process used by the body to chemically change a drug molecule, also called biotransformation

Minimum effective concentration: amount of drug required to produce a therapeutic effect

Pharmacokinetics: study of drug movement throughout the body

Plasma half-life: the length of time required for the plasma concentration of a drug to decrease by one half after administration

Prodrugs: drugs that become more active after they are metabolized

Substrate: drug that is metabolized by a CYP enzyme

Therapeutic drug monitoring: practice of monitoring plasma levels of drugs’ that have low safety profiles and using the data to predict drugh action or toxicity

Therapeutic range: dosage that produces the desired effects of a drug

Toxic concentration: level of drug that results in serious adverse effects

Agonist; drug that activates a receptor and produces the same type of response as the endogenous substance

Antagonist: agent that blocks the response of another drug

Dose-response relationship: the way a patient responds to varying doses of a drug

Efficacy: the maximal response that can be produced from a particular drug

Frequency distribution curve: a graphic representation of the actual number of patients responding to a particular drug action at different doses

Idiosyncratic response: unpredictable and unexplained drug reaction

Intrinsic activity: the ability of a drug to bind to a receptor and produce a strong action

Margin of safety (MOS): the amount of drug that is lethal to 1% of anmals divided by the amount of drug that produces a therapeutic effect in 99% of the animals

Median effective dose (ED50): the dose of a drug required to produce a specific therapeutic response in 50% of a group of patients

Median lethal dose (LD50): the dose of a drug that will kill 50% if a group of animals

Median toxicity dose (TD50): the dose that will produce a given toxicity in 50% of a group of patients

Partial agonist: medication that produces weaker or less efficacious response than an agonist

Pharmacodynamics; study of the mechanisms of drug action and how the body responds to drugs

Pharmacogenetics: the study of genetic variations that alter patients responses to medications branch of pharmacology that examines the role of genetics in drug response

Potency: the strength of a drug at a specified concentration or dose

Receptor: cellular molecule to which a drug binds to produce its effects

Second messenger: cascade of biochemical events taht intitiates a drugs action by either stimulationg or inhibiting a normal activity of the cell

Therapeutic index (LI): the ratio of a drugs LD50 to its ED50

Additive effect: type of drug interaction in which two agents combine to produce a summation response

Adverse drug effect: an undesirable and potentially harmful action caused by the administration of medication

Adverse Event Reporting System (AERS): voluntary program that encourages health care providers and consumers to report suspected adverse efects directly to the FDA or the product manufacturer

Antagonistic effect: type of drug interactions in which adding a second drug results in a diminished pharmacologic response

Black Box Warning: in some drug inserts, a requirement by the FDA that warns prescribers that the drug carries a risk for serious or fatal adverse effects

Drug allergies: a hype response of body defenses to a particular drug that may result in a diverse range of patient symptoms

Drug interaction: occurs when a medication interacts with another substance such as another drug, a dietary supplement, an herbal product, or food that is taken concurrently with the medication, and the drugs actions are affected

Idiosyncratic response: unpredictable and unexplained drug reaction

Risk-benefit ratio: determination of whether the risks form a drugh outweigh the potential benefits received by taking the medication

Side effect: types of drug effects that are less serious than adverse effects, are predictable and may occur even at therapeutic doses

Synergistic effect: type of drug interaction in which two drugs produce an effect that is much greater than would be expected form simply adding the two individual drugs responses

Teratogens: agent that causes birth defects

Medication administration record (MAR): legal documentation of all pharmacotherapies received by the patient

Medication error; any preventable event that may cause or lead to inappropriate medication use or patient harm while the medication is in the control of the health care provider, patient or consumer

Medication error index: categorization of medication errors according to the degree of harm an error can cause

Medication reconciliation: the process of keeping track of a patients medication as the patients care proceeds from one health care provider to another

Polypharmacy: taking multiple drugs concurrently

Risk management: system of reducing medication errors by modifying policies and procedures within the institution

Addiction: the continued use of a substance despite serious health and social consequences

Anterograde amnesia: type of short term memory loss where the user cannot remember events that occurred while under the influence of a drug

Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): disorder typically diagnosed in childhood characterized by hyperactivity as well as attention, organization, and behavior control issues

Club drug: a diverse group of abused substances taken by people at dance clubs, all night parties and raves

Controlled substance: in the United States a drug whose use is restricted by the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act

Cross-tolerance: situation in which tolerance to one drug makes the patient tolerant to another drug

Delirium tremens: a syndrome of intense agitation confusion terrifying hallucinations uncontrollable tremors panic attacks and paranoia caused by alcohol withdrawal

Hallucinogens: seeing hearing or feeling things that are not there

Opioids: class of drugs that includes natural substances obtained from the seeds of the poppy plant such as opium morphine and codeine

Physical dependence: condition of experiencing unpleasant withdrawal symptoms when a substance is discontinued after repeated use

Psychological dependence: desire to continue using a drug despite obvious negative economic physical or social consequences

Reboud effects: symptoms of lethargy and fatigue caused by withdrawal of methamphetamine and other stimulants

Reticular formation: portion of the brain affecting awareness and wakefulness

Scheduled drugs: in the United States a term describing a drug placed into one of five categories based on it potential for misuse or abuse

Sedatives: substances that depress the CNS and cause drowsiness or sleep

Substance abuse: self-administration of a drug that does not conform to the medical or social norms within the patients given culture or society

Tachyphylaxis: the rapid development of tolerance to any action of a drug either adverse or theapeutic effects

Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) : the active chemical in marijuana

Tolerance: process of adapting to a drug over a period of time and subsequently requiring higher doses to achieve the same effect

Withdrawal syndrome: symptoms that result when a patient discontinues taking a substance on which he or she was dependent

Assessment; appraisal of a patients condition that involves gathering and interpreting subjective and objective data

Baseline data: data gathered during the initial assessment that is compared with data gathered during later interactions

Evaluation: systematic objective assessment of the effectiveness and impact of interventions

Evaluation criteria: specific and measurable achievements that will be used to determine if a particular goal has been met

Evidence-based practice: used of research observations nursing practice and clinical judgment to determine care

Goal: what the patient should be able to achieve and do based on the problem or nursing diagnosis established from the assessment data

Implementation: when the nurse applies the knowledge skills and principles of nursing care to help move the patient toward the desired goal and optimal wellness

Intervention: nursing action that produces an effect or that is intended to alter the course of a disease or condition designed to move the patient toward the desired goal

Nursing diagnoses: list of problems that address the patients responses to health and life processes

Nursing process: five part decision making system that includes assessment nursing diagnosis planning implementation and evaluation

Outcome: statement that includes specific measurable evaluation criteria

Planning: phase of nursing process in which appropriate goals and outcomes are developed and nursing interventions that will help the patient them are determined